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Glass fusers are taught from the very beginning to keep precise records of each firing recording the type of glass, the fusing schedule and notes on what happened.  Then, once you get to know your kiln well, you will learn which pieces require which schedules.  What I didn’t realize is that this learning never really stops.  I have been using a full fuse schedule of 1460 degrees F for most of my plates, bowls, coasters, night lights, jewelry, and so forth for the last several years.  Basically, if I wanted a 6mm piece at full fuse, I took my kiln to 1460 degrees F.

Recently I was on a roll with coasters and started to notice a difference in the resulting coasters.  The first set of coasters to catch my eye was a set of Bullseye special glass coasters which mixed opaque glass with transparent glass.  I noticed that even though I started with a perfect square, I ended up with not a perfect square – basically lopsided.  So I decided to do some more testing and made a single coaster with aqua blue transparent and another with aqua blue opaque taking them 1460 degrees F.  This time, the result was consistent in that the general shape was a consistent square, but I noticed that I was getting a little pull in on the sides especially with the transparent aqua blue glass.  Hmm.  Perhaps this had been happening for a while and I just hadn’t noticed.

Often, glass pulling in on the sides is a sign of firing too hot.  So the next set of coasters I decided to try fusing them at 1425 degrees F.  I had always thought that 1425 degrees F was more for an aggressive tack fuse and have used it successfully this way for large platters.  But with 4 inch coasters, 1425 degrees F was enough to fully fuse the coasters and instead of their pulling in on the sides, they remained perfectly square with nicely rounded corners. Hence, I am now using less heat for my smaller pieces with better success.

Fused Glass Coaster Experiments

Fused Glass Coaster Experiments

Here is what I believe I have learned:

  • Smaller objects require less heat to fully fuse.  While a large 6mm platter may need 1460 degrees F in my kiln for a full fuse, smaller coasters and other small objects can be fully fused at 1425 degrees F.
  • Most transparent glass is softer and hence spreads the most and requires less heat to fuse.
  • Black fused glass is the stiffest and requires hotter temperatures to melt and fuse with opaque glasses somewhere between transparent glasses and black glass.
  • If you are using a streaky glass that includes both transparent and opaque colors, accept the fact that it won’t end up square at high temperatures and if it stresses you out, grind it square again and then just fire polish the edges.
Fused Glass Coasters Fired at 1425 degrees F (available in my Etsy Store)

Fused Glass Coasters Fired at 1425 degrees F (available in my Etsy Store)

NOTE: I learn much of what I know from reading other websites, classes and blogs and hence, I haven’t really invented anything new here.  But I am sharing what I found to work and not work.  If you have found other ways to do something similar to this, please share.  Thanks!

Life has been so busy lately that I don’t get much time in the shop.  However, these fused glass circles are so enticing to figure out the right solution for various components like the bookmarks, and it is fairly easy to get something in the kiln to test.  Very sorry I keep talking about circles; this will be the last post on these, I promise!

Trying to grind such small circles, keeping them round and not losing your fingernails is quite the challenge.  So after attempting to grind dichroic glass circles to get them the right size, I remembered a Round Gem Pod Mold I had bought from Slumpys.  It creates deeper and smaller circles than I wanted on the bookmarks, but if I used the same logic as stacking 9mm thick glass together and fusing it above 1500 degrees F to get a smoother 6mm circle, why couldn’t I do the same thing with these.

To fill each gem pod, I first added about 1/4 tsp of a fine deep color frit for a good base.  Then I added cut up pieces of dichroic glass making sure they were all facing up or down so I didn’t end up with dichroic glass facing itself (a no-no with dichroic glass as it won’t fuse together).  Last I filled the rest of the cavity with medium clear frit to have a nice shiny top.

Filling the Round Gem Pod Mold with Frit

Filling the Round Gem Pod Mold with Frit

In the picture below along the top row you can see what the circles look like after firing and right out of the mold.  After cleaning them, I put them back into the kiln on a shelf and fused to 1525 degrees F allowing them to get to 6mm thickness and filling out to a larger circle.  Lo and behold, the size ended up being the perfect size for my bookmarks.

Circles from Gem Pod Mold and Finished Circles after Refiring at 1525 degrees F

Circles from Gem Pod Mold and Finished Circles after Refiring at 1525 degrees F

Since I filled the gem pods, I am guessing it would be hard to get larger circles for say a jewelry base that wanted a 1″ circle, but for my 11/16″ circles, this worked great.  If I wanted smaller ones, I could play with this technique using different amounts of frit in the gem pods and as an example, weighing the frit to get me the size circle I wanted.

Finished Dichroic Fused Glass Bookmarks

Finished Dichroic Fused Glass Bookmarks (available on my Etsy Store)

I wanted to do an addendum to last week’s post about fusing small circles.  This past week I made several attempts to follow the same process with dichroic glass for the glass bookmarks as I did with clear glass.   With one exception, I did not end up with the perfect size circle after my first firing and instead I needed to grind the edges to make the circles the right size.   Here are my assumptions on why this is the case:

  1. Most of my smooth dichroic pieces are 2mm rather than 3mm thick.  And a stack of 3mm, 2mm, 3mm was just not enough to become a circle.
  2. I then tried to compensate for the too small stacks of 8mm and added a 2mm clear piece so now I had 10mm, but then it was hard to get an exact gauge at sizing to get the exact right size circle.
  3. Many of my rippled dichroic pieces are probably sold as 3mm, but they sure seem thicker to me and hence, I also couldn’t get an exact gauge on the square size needed to get my end result the right circle size.

One last input is that often times, when I used the thin 2mm dichroic glass on a black base it would not spread out for the full circle.  To compensate for this, make sure to add a 3mm piece of black under your dichroic piece so that you don’t end up with a square of black inside the clear.

Of course, the end result of small circles even with the added steps of grinding and then fire polishing is still possible and makes for wonderful additions to things like bookmarks and wine stoppers!

Fused Glass Bookmarks

Fused Glass Bookmarks

Last week’s post still works well for the 3mm thick glass pieces, however, it doesn’t work so well when working with dichroic glass as a short cut for getting the perfect size circle in one firing.

I see many different people using small perfect circles in their fused glass jewelry and I kept wondering how to make them so round.  I usually would fuse two pieces of 3mm stacked glass then draw a circle on the back of the fused not-quite circular piece and start grinding until I felt I had gotten the glass to look like a perfect circle, but in reality, I knew it wasn’t quite perfect.

Then I remembered that during class I had taken at Bullseye Resource Center in Portland, we used excess part sheet small parts fusing three layers of 3mm square glass pieces to 1525 degrees F and voila, they had come out round.

I recently bought some bookmarks that have a small round spot for gluing glass cabochons (or wood as I bought these from a wood catalog) and decided to do some test glass circles in clear glass to see which size would work best before I started working with the more expensive dichroic glass.  I cut three squares of each size (3/8″, 1/2″, 5/8″ and 3/4″) and stacked these three squares lining them up (not sure it matters, but wanted you to know exactly what I had done).   I then fired to 1525 degrees F using a typical kiln cycle. See the top row of my picture below.

Fused Glass Small Circles using 3 layers of 3mm Glass

Fused Glass Small Circles using 3 layers of 3mm Glass

The end result is as follows:

  • Original Cut Square Size             Finished Circle Size
  •            3/8″                                         5/8″
  •            1/2″                                         3/4″
  •            5/8″                                           1″
  •            3/4″                                       1-1/8″

The finished circle size of 3/4″ is perfect for my bookmarks and so my next task will be to make these out of some dichroic scrap pieces and hopefully have some really cool bookmarks to add to my Etsy shop.

Bookmark with Small Fused Glass Circle

Bookmark with Small Fused Glass Circle

As a quick addition, I also wondered about using Bullseye rods to make small circles.  It is quite easy to just nip off a piece of the rid and fire it and get small circles or dots.  But I wasn’t sure how much effect the size of the rod nipped off would have on the dot.  So I did three pieces for this test.

For the rods, it seems that the length of the rod cut ends up being the size of the dot.  So for example, a 1/4″ length cut off the rod ended up in a dot of 1/4″ diameter and a 3/8″ length of rod cut ended up in a dot of 3/8″ diameter.  See the bottom row of the above picture.

I’ll let you know how my dichroic circles work.  Hope this helps you with your perfect small circles!

NOTE: I learn much of what I know from reading other websites, classes and blogs and hence, I haven’t really invented anything new here.  But I am sharing what I found to work and not work.  If you have found other ways to do something similar to this, please share! 

Some weeks are just slow and this week was one of them.  I didn’t get a lot done in the glass workshop, but I was able to do two additional tests this week with the small angular molds.  One test which I mentioned last week was to test opaque versus transparent as the 3mm clear glass had slumped nicely into the Four Squares mold at 1250 degrees F with a hold of 15 minutes.  Hence, this week I did a 3mm opaque piece of Bullseye special glass to which I added some frit poppies.  It slumped just as nicely at 1250 degrees F with a hold of 15 minutes.  I have not ruled out the viscosity of the glass being a factor, but I do not think just purely transparent or opaque makes a difference.

Four Square Fused Glass Dish - 3mm thick (available in my Etsy Store)

Four Square Fused Glass Dish – 3mm thick (available in my Etsy Store)

I also had another mold that I wanted to try.   The One-Square Dish from Bullseye.  So I prepped this mold and made a 6mm square base.  For this mold, 1250 degrees was not hot enough and I needed to refire it to 1265 degrees with a 15 minute hold which worked nicely.  I have not done any other tests on this mold as of yet, but plan to as I think this is a perfect little ring dish or condiment dish.

One Square Fused Glass Dish - 6mm thick (available in my Etsy Store)

One Square Fused Glass Dish – 6mm thick (available in my Etsy Store)

Have a great next week!  And happy fusing to all the fuser’s out there!

I embarked on a new test trying to figure out with smaller more angular molds if 3mm or 6mm thickness of fused glass made a difference in being able to get better definition of the mold.  I used Bullseye’s Four-Square Dish (8935) for all of the following tests.

When I first started fusing glass, I slumped most of my glass pieces at 1225 degrees F based on information I had gleaned from various forums and tutorials.  I started to have a problem with larger plates developing a large bump in the center of the base and as I was in a class at the time, I asked for advice from other more experiences fusers.  I was told that I was taking my slumping schedule too hot and I should not go over 1180 degrees F.  So I have been using 1180 degrees F for my top temperature in my slumping schedule and it works quite well for my kilns and my pieces.

I recently bought some new molds which have more angular indentations, and my pieces did not seem to be taking advantage of the angles.  At first I assumed this was just the way it was, but then when I was in the Bullseye Resource Center, their fused pieces showed off these indentations quite nicely. I noticed that in many of the smaller, angular molds, they had only used a single sheet of 3mm glass and so wondered if this was the key.

Hence my desires to do some testing.  Spoiler alert:  I have to admit that for each test, I ended up with more questions and additional new things to try, so this post is just the beginning of answering the question.  

I first made a 6mm base of cyan and deep red glasses.  I read again many posts and it seems that many people slump deeper molds around 1220-1225 degrees F, so I decided to start with 1225 degrees F for this dish holding it for 10 minutes.  The dish came out nicely, but the sides are softer and not what I was trying to accomplish.

Four-Square Fused Glass Bowl in Cyan and Deep Red (6mm thick)

Four-Square Fused Glass Dish in Cyan and Deep Red (6mm thick)

My second plate was a single sheet of 3mm glass and again I slumped it using the same temperature of 1225 degrees F for 10 minutes.  I had really expected to see a difference in the indentations of the mold between the 3mm piece and the 6mm piece and I did not.

Four-Square Fused Glass Dish using 3mm Bullseye Special Glass with Extras

Four-Square Fused Glass Dish using 3mm Bullseye Special Glass with Extras

As I was in a hurry for my 3rd piece, I just used a 3mm sheet of clear glass this time taking the kiln both hotter to 1250 degrees F and holding it for 15 minutes.  This time I did indeed end up with more defined indentations.  But I realized after the fact that my first two pieces were opaque and the clear was not and hence perhaps since I altered the viscosity of the glass, this was another variable to which I needed to test.

Four-Square Fused Glass Dish in 3mm Clear Glass  (and taken to hotter slump temperature)

Four-Square Fused Glass Dish in 3mm Clear Glass (and taken to hotter slump temperature)

Here are all the factors which I believe are important and could possibly alter the end result:

1) thickness of the glass

2) viscosity of the glass

3) maximum slumping temperature

4) hold time at the maximum slumping temperature

My next tests this coming week will be to do a similar opaque 3mm sheet to test 2 but at the higher temperature and then also to try a 6mm fused blank at the higher temperature of test 3 to see if the opaqueness/viscosity play into the end result.

Of course, all the pieces are visually nice and completely functional for nuts, dips, salt tastings, and so forth.  But sometimes you just have to know How Things Work!

If you have any suggestions as you have already discovered the secrets to doing this, please add your comments!  This will help both me and any readers.  Thanks.  :-)

I find nature to be very calming and hence decided to add a little nature to a few fused glass night lights.  A night light is that little extra something that sits unobtrusively on the wall, and yet you see it regularly as you walk by both in daylight and in darkness.  Why not enjoy a beautiful scene with glass and colors that sparkle and reflect the light and maybe you will smile and relax each time you see it.

These night lights are also a great beginner project for glass fusing as they are small and creative allowing that taste of creating glass art without being overwhelming.

Frog Fused Glass Night Light (see Etsy listing)

Frog Fused Glass Night Light (see Etsy listing)

I have made night lights using two layers of glass (each layer is 3mm) and also a single 3mm sheet of glass and I personally think the single layer looks better as it not so heavy.  However, with a single layer of glass it is harder to get a variety of color and depth, so I decided to try using glass powder and glass frit to paint on the color and add depth.  You can do the whole process in a single firing, however because I do not have a lot of experience with “glass painting” I decided to do it in two firings.

Hummingbird Fused Glass Night Light (see Etsy listing)

Hummingbird Fused Glass Night Light (see Etsy listing)

For the first firing, I started with a single piece of 3mm clear glass and added powder.  My final night lights were going to feature a frog, hummingbird, rooster and stork, so for each character I needed to decide on the background.  Were they flying in the air, sitting among the weeds, playing in the water and then which glass colors best exhibited this scene.

But let me back up a step.  As I am not that familiar with powder colors once they are fired, I did a first step of creating some samples using clear glass and just laying strips of different blue and green powders, then firing so I would have this sample when trying to choose the sky and grass and water colors.

If you haven’t heard this mantra before, “if you think you have enough powder on your piece, add more!” remember it now.  I didn’t use nearly enough on my samples, but it was enough for me to get the idea.

Now back to the night lights, after deciding what scene I wanted for each animal, I applied the different glass powders to create the background and then fired each piece to 1400 degrees F.  I was glad I was doing a second firing because I didn’t follow the mantra above and did not have enough color.  So before adding the animals to each sheet, I added some more powder to the background and in some cases I added some other sizes of frit to give the piece dimension.  I then took the stencil of the animal and carefully laid it on the background and first added a layer of glass powder inside the template and then topped it with a layer of fine frit sometimes in the same color and sometimes in a  different color.   I then fired them a second time taking the kiln to only 1350 degrees as I wanted the top layer of frit to not completely fuse in.

Rooster Fused Glass Night Light (see Etsy listing)

Rooster Fused Glass Night Light (see Etsy listing)

Sometimes I curve the night lights with an additional firing on a stainless steel form and sometimes I decide I like them to remain flat which is what I decided for these nature night lights to better show off the animals.

Stork Fused Glass Night Light (see Etsy listing)

Stork Fused Glass Night Light (see Etsy listing)

The last step is to glue the night light metal backs to the glass using E6000 glue. 24 hours later I put the glass with the metal back (but not the plastic night light base or bulb) in the oven, heat the oven to 200 degrees and then let it cool to room temperature before removing the pieces.  This helps the E6000 glue adhere better.

These night lights were that easy!  If you are just getting started in glass or perhaps teaching some newbies, give this project a try.

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